Not the same thing! In “Rational and Irrational Thought: The Thinking That IQ Tests Miss” (1 Jan 2015, Scientific American), Keith Stanovich writes:
No doubt you know several folks with perfectly respectable IQs who repeatedly make poor decisions. The behavior of such people tells us that we are missing something important by treating intelligence as if it encompassed all cognitive abilities. I coined the term “dysrationalia” (analogous to “dyslexia”), meaning the inability to think and behave rationally despite having adequate intelligence, to draw attention to a large domain of cognitive life that intelligence tests fail to assess. Although most people recognize that IQ tests do not measure every important mental faculty, we behave as if they do. We have an implicit assumption that intelligence and rationality go together—or else why would we be so surprised when smart people do foolish things?
Yes. And as he points out, this is not an academic issue. It’s an issue that has practical, material, life-affecting consequences:
It is useful to get a handle on dysrationalia and its causes because we are beset by problems that require increasingly more accurate, rational responses. In the 21st century, shallow processing can lead physicians to choose less effective medical treatments, can cause people to fail to adequately assess risks in their environment, can lead to the misuse of information in legal proceedings, and can make parents resist vaccinating their children. Millions of dollars are spent on unneeded projects by government and private industry when decision makers are dysrationalic, billions are wasted on quack remedies, unnecessary surgery is performed and costly financial misjudgments are made.
We need science and education to be — and to train people to be — inductive, integrative thinkers, not memorizers. We must memorize in order to retain content that we can use, to not waste time we spent learning something, and to internalize good methods of thinking. But if we only regurgitate and forget, as is so widespread today, education is wasted and is done wrong.
Education should teach the logic of induction, definition, classification, context, and hierarchy, so people can live efficiently and happily, so they can achieve their goals and values, and so they can stay consistent with the demands and requirements of human life and human reason (a biological aspect of our consciousness).