The purpose of education is to prepare a child for adult life by training his conceptual faculty. The need for education arises from the fact that man’s conceptual faculty is volitional and develops over years of training.
The subjects needed to accomplish the purpose, the primary goal, of education are history, science, mathematics, literature, and grammar/language. History, because it is the story of man and of human nature. Science, because it is the organized study of the external world and natural law. Mathematics, because it is the science of measurement, teaching the tools of science, basic logic, and providing clues to the essence of deduction, induction and the application of knowledge. Literature, because it is the form of art that uses concepts as its medium.
Writing, as a tool of thought, should be done daily in as many subjects as possible. Logic should be taught implicitly in the various subjects through similarity and difference, essentializing, determining cause and effect, analysis and synthesis, induction, and deduction.
The basic principles that need to be applied at all times in all subjects are:
integration — all knowledge is interrelated;
hierarchy — all knowledge has structure (lower to more abstract levels) so subjects should be taught step-by-step;
reality — knowledge is knowledge of an objective reality;
values– all knowledge has a value component, a use in attaining the values needed for human life.
The implications are that one needs to present bite-sized units of knowledge appropriate to the audience’s context; the pieces need to be integrated into larger units and into the whole of a person’s knowledge; the purpose and value of what you are teaching needs to drive your presentation; and you need to keep your audience focused on success and their own efficacy, and keep alive (through praise, rewards, and good direction) the burning desire to achieve and move forward — and to look at failures and weaknesses as things that are in the process of improvement.
Fundamentally, a proper education rests on the principles that (1) man is a rational animal (and an individual), (2) reason is man’s means of survival and method of cognition, (3) reason is volitional, (4) sense perception is valid, automatic and is the base of all our knowledge, and (5) the external world is intelligible, lawful, and independent of consciousness.
The “cash value” is that a proper education, based on rational principles, will teach students to be self-reliant, independent, objective, purposeful, responsible and value-oriented adults.